Galardón

Galardón may deserve a galardón, i.e. ‘a reward, a recompense,’ for having changed so much from its ultimate source. Formerly gualardón, the word was borrowed, or more accurately garbled, from a Germanic form like *withralaun, which meant ‘recompense.’ To find the corresponding English term, we begin with the Old High German cognate widarlōn, a compound of widar ‘back, against,’ and lōn ‘reward.’ The first part is a cognate of native English with, which preserves its original sense in verbs like withhold and withstand and in a statement like “He got so angry at his boss that he fought with him.” Medieval Latin adopted the Old High German term as widerdōnum, with the change from l to d due to influence from Latin dōnum ‘gift.’ Old French borrowed the Latin word and ended up phonetically simplifying it to guerdon, which then passed into English. Granted, guerdon is an uncommon word and rarely found outside old or old-fashioned writing.

© 2018 Steven Schwartzman

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Careening from carena to keel

When posting about an American snout butterfly recently, I gave its scientific name: Libythaena carinenta. Later I wondered whether that species name might have been based on Latin carīna, meaning ‘keel.’ I still don’t know the answer, but I separately assumed Spanish would have inherited the Latin noun, and in fact it did, in the slightly different form carena. However, Spanish carena doesn’t mean ‘the keel itself of a ship’ but rather, in a definition from the DRAE, ‘parte sumergida del casco de un buque,’ the submerged part of a ship’s hull.’ It can also mean ‘the repair of a ship’s hull to make it watertight.’

That Spanish carena looks a lot like English careen is not just a coincidence. According to the American Heritage Dictionary, the English word comes from the French phrase (en) carène ‘(on) the keel,’ whose main word came from carene, which Old French had borrowed from Old Italian carena, from the original Latin carīna. Careen originated as a nautical term with the sense ‘to incline to one side, or lie over, as a ship when sailing on a wind.’ Another nautical sense is ‘to cause (a vessel) to lean over so that she floats on one side, leaving the other side out of water and accessible for repairs below the water line.’ From the first nautical meaning came the regular English senses ‘to lurch or sway violently from side to side’ and ‘to move swiftly in a controlled or an uncontrolled way.’

If Spanish carena doesn’t mean ‘keel’ per se, how does Spanish say that? The word happens to be quilla, which might make you think Spanish had borrowed the term from English. Actually Spanish took it from French quille. It turns out that both the English and French versions trace back to the Old Norse word for ‘keel,’ kjölr. Those Vikings careened from place to place, no question about it.

© 2018 Steven Schwartzman

T-shirts, I-beams, and decussation

It’s not unusual to refer to an object using a letter of the alphabet whose shape resembles that object. Maybe the most familiar example is the T-shirt. Spanish uses different words for that item in different countries, with camiseta probably being the most widespread. Still, Spanish speakers in the United States do often say T-shirt, and according to Wikipedia so do speakers in Panama, presumably because of the long presence of Americans in the Panama Canal Zone. Some T-shirts, by the way, have a V-neck, which Spanish apparently refers to as escote en V.

When it comes to the I-beam, whose cross section gives a capital I with cross strokes at the top and bottom, Spanish says viga en I and also, according to the Diccionario de Arquitectura y Construcción, viga de doble T, where we have to imagine a capital T superimposed on an upside down one.

And what about the decussation, for which Spanish similarly has decusación, in the title of this post? First a definition: in anatomy, a decussation is ‘a crossing of bands of nerve fibers in the brain or spinal cord.’ The term is taken straight from Latin decussātiō, with stem decussātiōn-. The American Heritage Dictionary says that noun was based on decussus, which meant ‘the number ten’ and ‘the intersection of two lines.’ The connection is that the Romans used their letter X to represent the number ten, and that letter consists of two crossing line segments. For more about decussation itself, you’re welcome to follow up with a Wikipedia article.

© 2018 Steven Schwartzman

oveja

A fair number of Spanish nouns ending in j followed by a or o developed from Latin or Late Latin diminutives. One of those is the word for ‘sheep,’ oveja. It evolved from Late Latin ovicula, a diminutive of Latin ovis ‘sheep.’ Based on that, we have the adjective ovino/ovine, meaning ‘of or pertaining to or like sheep’ (compare bovino/bovine for cattle).

If we go back to Indo-European, we find that the root for ‘sheep’ was *owi– (and remember that the Romans pronounced the letter v as a in ovis). From that Indo-European root came native English ewe ‘female sheep.’

© 2018 Steven Schwartzman

atelier

English and Spanish have both found a home for the French word atelier, which means ‘an artist’s or craftsman’s studio,’ but Spanish outdid English by also creating from atelier the doublet taller, whose meanings have expanded to include ‘workshop, garage, repair shop’ and even ‘seminar.’

So where did French atelier come from? The Old French form had been astelier, and the meaning back then was ‘a carpenter’s shop.’ A carpenter works in wood, so it shouldn’t come as a surprise that astelier had been formed from the Old French astele that meant ‘splinter’: a carpenter was ‘a splinterer.’ At this point, we recognize Old French astele as the cognate of the synonymous Spanish astilla. The Old Spanish form had been astiella, which developed from Late Latin astella, a reworking of the Latin astula that also meant ‘a splinter.’

But wait: Spanish has not only the doublets atelier and taller, but also from Old French astelier the triplet astillero, which is ‘a shipyard.’ Until the mid-1800s, of course, all ships were made of wood, and shipbuilders were carpenters.

Corresponding to the Spanish proverb “Tal palo, tal astilla,” which conveys the idea that a splinter is like the wood it came from, English speaks of “a chip off the old block,” with the block standing in for a father and the chip being his son.

© 2018 Steven Schwartzman

 

 

lunicide

The word lunicidio/lunicide means ‘a killing of the moon’—or at least that’s what it would mean if it existed. Spanish speakers recognize that luna is ‘the moon,’ just as it had been in Latin, and even English speakers are familiar with luna from astronomy and from the adjective lunar, which Spanish shares. Several posts here in the first year of this blog dealt with luna.

The suffix -cidio/-cide—familiar from compounds like suicidio/suicide, fratricidio/fratricide, and homicidio/homicide—derives from the Latin verb caedere that meant ‘to strike, cut, cut down down,’ and often ‘to kill.’ The ‘strike’ sense led, starting with the Latin past participle caesus, adding a suffix, and evolving through Old French, to English chisel. From the past participle of a Latin compound we have the kind of tooth called an incisivo/incisor; a surgical cut is an incisión/incision. The Latin compound praecīdere ‘to shorten’ has given us preciso/precise.

© 2018 Steven Schwartzman

estiércol

Estiércol, the Spanish word for ‘fertilizer,’ traces back to Latin stercus, with stem stercor-, which meant ‘dung, excrement,’ and also, based on the use to which that was put, ‘fertilizer.’ The ancient Romans created gods for lots of things, and one of those deities was Stercutus, the god of manuring. He seems to have been more important than you might have expected because he was also known as Sterculus and Sterculinus.

While Latin stercus left the ground of common English vocabulary infertile, it did lead to some fancy technical words in English. One keeps us in the realm of the gods: In Christian theology, stercoranism is ‘the belief that the consecrated Eucharistic elements, the bread and wine, are subject to decay and pass through the body like other ingested things.’

In the sciences, we have stercolith, ‘a hard mass of fecal matter.” Stercoraceous means ‘relating to, being, or containing feces.’ Botanists created a plant family called Sterculiaceae, a name chosen because of the smell given off by some of the plants in that family. Will it spoil your enjoyment to learn that chocolate is in that family? Oh well, you can mask any unpleasantness by telling people that the kind of chocolate you’re offering them is sterculiaceous and letting it go at that.

© 2018 Steven Schwartzman

nimbyish

A couple of weeks ago I was reading an article in The Economist and came across the word nimbyish for the first time. Despite never having seen the word before, I understood that it was an adjective formed from nimby (also Nimby or NIMBY), an acronym for not in my back yard. Merriam-Webster defines nimby as ‘opposition to the locating of something considered undesirable (such as a prison or incinerator) in one’s neighborhood.’ The definition in the Oxford Living Dictionaries is ‘A person who objects to the siting of something perceived as unpleasant or potentially dangerous in their own neighborhood, such as a landfill or hazardous waste facility, especially while raising no such objections to similar developments elsewhere.‘ As you can see in those two definitions, some dictionaries apply nimby to the objection and others to the person doing the objecting.

As far as I can tell, Spanish doesn’t have a counterpart to nimby. Span¡shD!ict offers up an explanation rather than a Spanish translation: ‘persona que se opone a la ubicación de cualquier tipo de construcción o proyecto problemático en su vecindario‘ and ‘de oposición a la ubicación de cualquier tipo de construcción o proyecto problemático en un vecindario concreto.’ Given this nimsdy (not in my Spanish dictionary yet) situation, let’s look at each individual word in the original English phrase and see if it has a Spanish cognate.

1) not — Spanish no, from Latin nōn, is obviously a cognate. All three go back to the Indo-European negative, ne.

2) in — This is obviously the cognate of Spanish en, which evolved from the Latin in that had come from Indo-European en. Talk about flip-flopping.

3 my — Here we have a shortened form of mine, from Old English mīn. The obvious Spanish cognate mi evolved from Latin meus. All these words came from Indo-European me-, the form of the first person singular personal pronoun used for cases other than the nominative.

4) back — Spanish has no cognate in this case. English back goes back to Anglo-Saxon bæc.

5) yard — Speakers of Tex-Mex have carried over the English word as yarda, but that’s not standard Spanish. The English word evolved from Anglo-Saxon geard, based on the Indo-European root gher- that meant ‘to enclose, to grasp.’ Another descendant of that root was Old North French gart, which has passed into English as garden. The French cognate is jardin, which Spanish borrowed in Old French times as jardín.

© 2018 Steven Schwartzman

ardido

Spanish has two words ardido. One is the past participle of arder ‘to burn.’ English speakers recognize it in the adjective ardent, which has a figurative sense. A similar metaphor has led Spanish ardido to be used in some countries to mean ‘burning with anger,’ in other words ‘angry, enraged.’ The present participle ardiente that corresponds to English ardent also appears in a figurative sense in aguardiente, literally ‘burning water,’ but actually ‘brandy.’ Compare the firewater that arose in the vocabulary of the Algonquian Indians once they were exposed to Europeans’ alcoholic beverages.

The other Spanish ardido means ‘brave, bold, daring,’ and not because the person being described that way has drunk too much firewater. No, this ardido came into Spanish from a word in a Germanic language related to native English hard. The ‘bold’ sense is clearer in English hardy. Perhaps surprisingly, given how similar-looking hard and hardy are, the latter is not native English but was borrowed from Old French, which had taken the word from a Germanic source. Closely related to this Spanish ardido is the noun ardid, which originally meant ‘a risky venture’ but now has the sense of ‘a ruse, a trick.’

Going back to the ‘burning’ ardido, we note that Spanish arder ‘to burn’ developed from the synonymous Latin ārdēre. The root of the past participle ārsus led to the Late Latin noun ārsiōn-, which via Anglo-Norman has become English arson. If there ever was a cognate of that in Spanish, it has apparently long since burned out.

© 2018 Steven Schwartzman

flébil

Spanish flébil is a literary word that means the same as its Latin source flēbilis lamentable, deplorable, mournful,’ which had come from the verb flēre ‘to weep.’ If no English relative comes to mind, it’s in part because the first l dropped out of flēbilis as the adjective evolved into the Old French feble that passed into English and has taken on the modern form feeble. Note that the shift in meaning is another reason English-speaking students of Latin wouldn’t make a connection to an English descendant of flēbilis. Once we accept feeble, we can pretty easily see that it has a doublet, foible. That’s the form that made it into early modern French but is now obsolete in that language. What had started out as an adjective came to be used as a noun to designate ‘the weaker part of a sword blade.’ Semantic expansion led to the modern sense ‘a minor weakness or peculiarity in someone’s character or behavior.’ Webster’s 1828 Dictionary gave this definition: “A particular moral weakness; a failing. When we speak of a man’s foible in the singular, which is also called his weak side, we refer to a predominant failing. We use also the plural, foibles, to denote moral failings or defects. It is wise in every man to know his own foibles.”

© 2018 Steven Schwartzman

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©2011–2018 Steven Schwartzman

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